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Violent Ballads as Border Representations: The Aesthetics of Violence in the Mexican and Chicana/o Corrido

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The contents, poetic organization, musical form, and aesthetic history of corridos lead to an alternative interpretation of the nature of violence in Mexican and American societies as seen through the Mexican's sense of history, music, and culture.
Peter J. Garcia

Issue #61, September 2002

Mexican and Chicana/o working classes have a long tradition of ballad responses to racial and gender violence, a tradition that now includes ballads about the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. The Mexican corrido has been described as a social barometer of Mexican attitudes toward events affecting their lives. The corrido has long been an expression reflecting public values and a community's interpretation of the historical process.

Today, the corrido continues to sustain values, ethnic solidarity, and loyalty for causes that the masses see as important to their cultural survival. Corridos are important ethno-historical documents providing a range of facts regarding the social environment. Their contents, poetic organization, musical form, and aesthetic history lead to an alternative interpretation of the nature of violence in Mexican and American societies as seen through the Mexican's sense of history, music, and culture. This is true of the corrido among Mexicans in the United States. Here too, the corrido has functioned as a "collective diary," expressing symbolically the Chicano people's reactions to events vital to their self-interests.

El Corrido de Gregorio Cortez

El Corrido de Gregorio Cortez is probably the best known corrido throughout the Southwest and deals with interracial conflict between Anglos and Mexicans. It is based on a true story. According to ethnomusicologist Manuel Peña, Gregorio Cortez was apparently a peaceful Mexican until the afternoon of June 12, 1901 when Sheriff W.T. (Brack) Morris came to Cortez's home in South Texas. Sheriff Morris was after a horse thief and attempted to arrest Cortez, who was later cleared of the charges.

In the ensuing fracas Cortez shot and killed the sheriff after the later had drawn his own gun and wounded Cortez's brother, Rumaldo. Convinced that he would never get a fair trial in Texas, Cortez fled. For the next ten days, sometimes literally slipping through the fingers of the army that pursued him, Cortez eluded his captors. He was finally seized just thirty miles shy of his destination, the Rio Grande and Mexico. The chase had taken ten days, during which Cortez walked at least one hundred twenty miles and rode more than four hundred on brown and sorrel mares. He had been chased by hundreds of men, in parties of up to three hundred. He had killed two sheriffs and fought off many posses.

Soon after his capture many Mexicans expressed their support of Cortez and raised financial support to fight his court case. Cortez became a hero and a symbol of the Mexican people in Texas who were subject to racism, injustice, and discrimination at the hands of Anglos. After three trials on separate charges arising out of the original events, resulting in three guilty verdicts, three appeals court reversals, and one acquittal, Cortez was finally convicted of murder. He was given a life sentence, but was pardoned on July 7, 1913, after spending twelve years in prison. Cortez's case struck a responsive and sympathetic chord in the hearts of his compatriots.

Contemporary Mejicano Corridos

El Corrido de Juanito

Ahí les va el corrido de Juanito
Es un hómbre de triste corazón
El mató a la mujer que mas quería
Y ahóra mismo se encuentra en la prisíon

Una noche a mediados de diciembre
En el baile que Juan se presento
Se encontraba Anita muy hermosa
Esperando con ancias a su amor

Al llegar a ese baile celebrado
En la puerta Juanito se paró
Desde ahí vió a Anita que bailaba
Con un joven quien el desconocio

Que enorme el coraje que sentilla
Fue tan fuerte que loco le volvio
Que mirando la piesa que bailaba
Frente a Anita Juanito se paró

Mira Anita, ya vi lo que me has hecho
Me traicionas y tienes que pagar
Ya te vi en los brazos de ese hombre
Por lo tanto se que te va a pesar

Decidido y con pistola en mano
Muy furioso Juanito le apuntó
Yo soy hombre y tu me has traicionado
Nuestro amor ya con esto terminó

"No me mates", Anita le decía
"Dame tiempo a una explicacion"
Al instante oyeron dos desparos
Y uno dellos rompió su corazón

Quando Anita estaba agonizando
Ha su lado Juanito se acercó
"por tus celos mira lo que me has hecho"
"Me has herido sin tener culpa yo"

"Ese joven con el que yo bailaba"
"Ese joven es mi hermano mayor"
"He pagado por algo que no hice"
"Te perdono" era su ultima expresión

Here goes Juanito's corrido
He is a man of sad heart
He killed the woman he most loved
Right now he finds himself in prison

One night in the middle of December
At a dance where he presented himself
Where the beautiful Anita was to be found
Waiting anxiously for her love

Arriving at that celebrated dance
At the door Juanito stood
From there he could see that Anita danced
with a youth whom he did not know

How enormous was his rage
that it's intensity drove him mad
Just watching the steps that they danced
In front of Anita, Juanito went and stood

Look Anita, I have seen what you have done
You are betraying me, so you must pay
I have seen you in the arms of that man
Right now, I know that you are going to regret it

Once decided and with his pistol in his hand
Very furious, Juanito pointed his gun.
I am a man and you have betrayed me
Our love, with this, has ended

"Don't kill me," Anita said.
"Give me time for an explanation"
At that moment, two shots sounded
And one wounded her heart

While Anita was in agony
Juanito approached her side
"Because of your jealousy, look what you have done to me"
You have hurt me when I wasn't at fault

That young man whom I was dancing with
That young guy is my older brother
"I paid for something I didn't do"
"I forgive you" was her final word
(author's translation)

This corrido may be interpreted in many ways. The first thing that stands out is absence of the copla. The ballad maintains uses four-line stanzas with eleven syllables per line. Likewise the line "con pistola en mano/with his pistol in his hand" is also used in El Corrido de Gregorio Cortez. It is an interesting metaphor for Mexican machismo. Narrative folk ballads of Mexican origin typically have regular metrical features such as rhyming quatrains (abcb) and use traditional imagery. Those with "epic themes" typically refer to conflict — sometimes personal, more often social as in this case between men.

The protagonist of El Corrido de Juanito is of course Juanito. Unlike Gregorio Cortez who was a heroic man defending his political and civil human rights, and by extension those of his community, against social tyranny and oppression, Juanito reacts here to a perceived assault on his masculinity and personal dignity. From his vantage point, Anita is his possession and thus the object of both his wrath and affection. The innocent Anita is mistaken as la traidora (traitor).

In a less than subtle way, perhaps the ballad speaks more to the oppression of women in contemporary Mexican society. More importantly, the absence of details such as setting, place, and surnames leaves the listener with ambivalent factual information and renders the corrido a tragic comedy or comedy of errors through omission of vital historical data and the absurdity of the situation. This aesthetic feature affects both structure and style and is called fragmentismo, the process by which fragments of ballads are torn from their context, leaving much unexplained and producing, at times, abrupt beginnings and endings. Fragmentation is a central feature of older Hispanic ballads. It is a unique aesthetic technique that has developed over generations and is agreeable and esthetically pleasing to singers, composers, and listeners. Of far greater importance however than limited negative and positive female images is the corrido's larger gender politics and poetics of exclusion and repression.


The narcocorrido has emerged as a recent sub-genre of the Mexican classical corrido. Following his death, Chalino Sanchez achieved popular canonization as a legendary narcocorrido performer. Better known as 'El Pela Vacas,' Rosalino 'Chalino' Sanchez Felix assumed a legendary role as the revitalizer of the corrido.

Best known among the 24 million people who inhabit the territories that unite or separate Mexico and the United States, Chalino Sanchez became the number one narcocorrido singer in his time. According to Ilan Stavans, his reputation reaches far beyond, from his native state of Sinaloa to the nearby Coahuila and Durango and, emphatically, to the Mexican "suburbs" of Los Angeles, where Chalino spent his most artistically fruitful years. Songs he popularized, like "Corrido de Amistad," are listened to religiously on the radio in cantinas and at birthday parties, malls and mechanic shops. His cassettes and CDs are astonishingly popular. By all accounts a mediocre singer with little stage charisma, he is nevertheless a folk hero of epic proportions to Mexicans. Chalino's songs address urgent political and social issues head on: poverty, drug traffic, injustice, discrimination, and the disillusionment of a life spent chasing the ever-evasive dollar bill.

In one ballad a couple of girls disguise themselves as nuns and drive a van full of cocaine, which they claim is powdered milk for an orphanage in Phoenix. In another, two brothers, Carlos and Raul, are the owners of a circus that uses unfair strategies to push other circuses out of business. The circus is an allegory for Mexico of the late 1980s and early 1990s: the names are obvious references to former Mexican president Carlos Salinas de Gortari and his drug money convict brother Raul.

Stavans points out that most narcocorridos celebrate the semi-fictitious adventures of a righteous person, usually a man, who dared to fight against the establishment. Chalino Sanchez's life and death were very violent. His music career was brief due to his unsolved murder on May 16, 1992.

Chalino always wore a distinctive outfit, a cowboy hat, white or striped shirt, dark slacks and boots, together with ostentatious jewelry. He spoke with a Sinaloan ranchero accent and looked like someone straight out of the mountains. He came to the United States at age 15 and followed the harvests from California to Oregon, finally settling in Inglewood, a Mexican-immigrant satellite town in Los Angeles.

At age fifteen he murdered a man called "El Chapo" who had raped his sister. After the incident, Chalino went to Los Angeles where he worked washing dishes, selling cars, and helped his brother smuggle illegal immigrants until Armando was was killed in Tijuana. Chalino was sent to prison there for a series of small crimes. It was during his incarceration that he came across contraband smugglers who were also musicians and he began composing corridos. Following his release, he returned to LA where he traded marijuana and cocaine. He ended his career as a narcotrafficante when his musical career — which only lasted four years — took off.

Today most people believe his death was tied to illegal drug activity. Following a concert in Coachella, twenty miles east of Palm Springs, an intoxicated, unemployed 33 year-old jumped onstage and fired a pistol in Chalino's side, injuring him. Chalino's reputation as a valiente, a brave macho, was bolstered by the incident. In 1984, Chalino married Marisella Vallejo and they soon had a son Adan and daughter Cynthia. That same year, Chalino composed a corrido about his brother that launched his musical career. Soon after this first ballad, Chalino began to compose corridos on commission, often accepting jewelry and firearms as payment.

According to ethnomusicologist Helena Simonett, "composed corridos tend to give the out view, and are composed in the first person. Protagonists in this type of narcocorrido are mystified and made modest. A commissioned corrido, on the other hand, is a story based more on a specific person. It tends to elaborate on every move or action of an individual and specifically states his or her position in the business. Commissioned corridos are usually performed by close friends or insider mafiosos. Commissioned corridos usually depict the trafficker or drug lord as a colorful person, courageous, cool, with extreme capabilities and power.

Promoting commissioned narcocorridos can be dangerous in today's world. By the time Chalino had composed several corridos, he hired a local norteño band to record them. The band dallied and Chalino opted to record the ballads himself. In 1989 he and his band Los Cuatro de La Frontera recorded fifteen corridos in Angel Parra's studios. He made only fifteen copies of his first tape and soon returned to record another cassette with fifteen new hits. Soon after, Chalino's music struck a chord with his audience and his recordings were in demand. An agent named Pedro Rivera helped Chalino reach the peak of his musical career. He began to play at clubs like "El Parral" and radio stations gave play time to his recordings.

In May 1992, after a packed performance in Culiacan, Chalino and some relatives were stopped by armed men driving a Chevrolet Suburban. Hours later, his body was found by two campesinos, dumped by an irrigation canal near a highway. He had been blindfolded and his wrist had rope marks. He had been shot twice in the back of the head. The mystery of his death remains unsolved.

News of Chalino's death spread far and wide across the media. In migrant communities, however, the corrido remains the newspaper of illiterate people. Chalino was immortalized in homenajes, or corridos composed and recorded in homage to him.

La Tragedia de Nueva York

Racial conflict and violence has long been a way of life along the United States/Mexican border. Following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11th, the sensational sounds and "in your face" images of violence and death on the news took on a more heightened expression. Global dissemination of violent cultural forms and symbolic capital provides people with new ways of accommodating and reacting to an increasingly uncertain world climate. The September 11th attack was no different. Several corridos devoted to the tragedy have been composed. One version is La Trajedia de Nueva York, recorded by El As de la Sierra in the Banda Sinaloense style. The text and translation of the ballad are as follow:

Qué raya comenzó
en los Estado Unidos?
Y miren cómo empozó
con aviones dirigidos
a esas torres tan hermosas
el terrorismo ha surgido.

No me quisiera acordar
de imàgines tan violentas.
Ni me quiro imaginar
en cuànta gente està muerta.
en luto està el mundo entero
esto es inicio de guerra.

Que mentes tan criminales
o tal vez sean desquiciados
de qué países vinieron
esos planes tan malvados?
Dicen que son talibanes
Los que estàn involucrados

La primera guerra del signo
señores ya comenzó
el que organizó el ataque
no sabe en qué se metió.
El que resulte culpable
Ay pobrecita nación!
Que planes tan estudiados
al secuestrar cinco aviones.
Con cieciocho terroristas
hicieron operaciones
Washington y Nueva York
el blanco de esos traidores.

El martes negro señores
las ocho y quince serían
cuando en las Torres Gemelas
un avión se estrellaría.
La gente se imaginaba
que un accidente sería.

La gente de Nueva York
sin saber lo qué pasaba
mirando y al ver esa torre
otra avión se aproximaba.
Como a los quince minutos,
en la otra torre chocaba.

Me da tristeza cantarles
Pero lo tenía que hacer
Los que iniciaron la guerra
Prepàrense pa' perder.
El país de ese cobarde
Puede desaparecer.

What happened
In the United States?
And look at how it happened
with planes directed
at those lovely towers
terrorism has arrived.

I do not want to remember
The violent images
Nor do I want to imagine
How many people are dead.
The whole world is grieving
This is the beginning of war.

Such criminal minds,
or are they just mad?
From what country are
Those horrific plans
They say they are Taliban
the ones involved

The first war of the century
Sirs, it has begun.
The one that organized the attack
doesn't know what he's involved in.
The one responsible for this,
Oh, that poor nation!
Such well thought-out plans
hijacking five airplanes
with eighteen terrorists
they conducted the operations
Washington and New York
the traitor's target.

On Black Tuesday, sirs,
at about 8:15
when at the Twin Towers
an airplane would crash.
The people thought
that it was an accident.

The people of New York,
without knowing what has happening
looking at that tower,
while another plane was approaching.
About 15 minutes later
another crash at the tower.

It saddens me to sing this to you
But I had to do it.
The ones responsible for starting the war
Prepare to lose.
That coward's country
could disappear.
(translated by Maribelle Sazazar)

Peter Garcia is assistant professor of Chicana/Chicano Studies at Arizona State University. He can be reached at

Copyright © 2002 by Peter J. Garcia. All rights reserved.

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